Chapter Bioreactor-Based Bone Tissue Engineering
Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that play critical role in human health and have to be provided by food. In the brain, PUFAs are also precursors of endocannabinoids. The aim of this chapter is to review the existing literature on how dietary PUFAs impact on the endocannabinoid system in the brain and what are the consequences for brain function and dysfunction. In this chapter, we will first describe how PUFAs enter the brain, what are their metabolism processes and roles in brain function. We will describe the pathways from PUFAs to endocannabinoid production. Then, we will review the literature on how dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratio impacts the endocannabinoid system, in terms of endocannabinoid levels, proteins and endocannabinoid-dependent synaptic plasticity. In the next part, we will describe what we know about the interactions between PUFAs and endocannabinoids in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we will conclude on the possible implications of the interactions between dietary PUFAs and endocannabinoids in the normal and pathological brain. In particular, we will discuss how dietary PUFAs, as homeostatic regulators of endocannabinoids, can constitute interesting therapeutic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of neurological disorders with endocannabinoids impairment.
Keywordsbrain, polyunsaturated fatty acids, endocannabinoids, omega-3, synaptic plasticity
Publication date and place2016